There are multiple symptoms of visual impairment. The most common are listed below.
Sparks, and stars, flashes before the eyes;
Decreased visual acuity;
Blurred vision at a distance or near;
Feeling of "veil" or "sand" in the eyes;
Doubling of objects;
Pain and tearing;
Reduced twilight vision;
Rapid fatigue during hard work;
Impaired perception of light and colors;
Side vision disorder.
In most cases, visual impairment symptoms develop within several years. Less often, a person is faced with a situation where vision deteriorates suddenly. This requires immediate medical assistance to rule out life-threatening pathologies.
Deterioration of visual function is always accompanied by a bad mental state. Often along with vision impairment headaches, poor health, lethargy, noticeable changes in behavior, and depression develop. Sometimes it’s a symptom of a disease of another organ. In this case, the following symptoms may accompany it:
Persistent headache, often localized in a specific area (temporal, occipital, etc.);
Weakness in limbs and body;
Noise in ears;
Pain in the cervical spine.
Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of eye abnormalities should be handled by an eye doctor, often in conjunction with other specialists.
Today people are affected by many factors that provoke visual impairment. The most significant of them are:
Lack of eye muscle training
In order for the optical system of the eye to be able to adequately project an image onto the retina, the eye muscles must work flawlessly. Prolonged fixation of the gaze on a nearby object (book, phone, PC) leads to a weakening of the muscular apparatus.
The structure of the retina includes the special pigment rhodopsin, which is responsible for the perception of the image. In older people, its amount is reduced, so they see worse than young people. With age, the ability of the lens to change shape also decreases, which causes senile farsightedness.
Visual function depends on the adequacy of the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the eye.
Prolonged intensive eye strain
In dim or bright light, the eye structures require extra strain. This causes them to wear out.
Blue spectrum of light
Scientists have proven that prolonged exposure to short wavelengths of light triggers a series of photochemical reactions in the retina with the release of free radicals that destroy its structure. Therefore, the harm of a computer, gadgets, TV, and bright fluorescent lamps is undeniable.
Drying of the mucous membrane of the eye
Rare blinking, which is often observed while working at a computer, leads to insufficient coverage of the mucous membranes with special moisture and, as a result, visual impairment.
Physicians conditionally divide the causes of visual impairment by nature of origin into ophthalmic and not related to eye pathology. Among the main eye provocateurs, the following categories are distinguished:
Injuries and burns;
Hemorrhage, detachment, rupture, retinal degeneration;
Infections - conjunctivitis, keratitis, blepharitis, etc.;
Insufficient blood circulation;
Innervation disorders - loss of sensitivity of the optic nerve;
Change in the shape of the eyeball - myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism.
Other causes of visual acuity deterioration are associated with heredity, pregnancy, the formation of brain tumors, insufficient blood circulation in the cervical spine, skull injuries, and endocrine pathologies. Lifestyle and nutrition also play an important role. So, alcoholism, drug addiction, smoking, lack of sleep, and lack of vitamins A, D, E, and proteins leads to the destruction of eye cells.
When it is impossible to help the patient conservatively, doctors resort to surgical treatment - laser correction, coagulation, the introduction of corneal implants and intraocular lenses, and removal of the lens.